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Desmond Dekker

Desmond Dekker (July 16, 1941 – May 25, 2006) was a Jamaican ska and reggae singer and songwriter. Together with his backing group, The Aces (consisting of Wilson James and Easton Barrington Howard), he had one of the first international Jamaican hits with “Israelites”. Other hits include “007 (Shanty Town)” (1967) and “It Miek” (1969). Before the ascent of Bob Marley, Dekker was one of the most popular musicians within Jamaica, and one of the best-known musicians outside it.

Early days

He was born Desmond Adolphus Dacres in St. Andrew, Jamaica and grew up in Kingston, where he attended the Alpha Boys' School. After his mother was taken ill and died, his father moved him to St. Mary, and then to St. Thomas, where he apprenticed as a tailor before returning to Kingston and taking a job as a welder, singing around his workplace while his co-workers encouraged him. In 1961 he auditioned for Coxsone Dodd (Studio One) and Duke Reid (Treasure Isle). Neither was impressed by his talents, and the young man moved on to Leslie Kong's Beverley record label, where he auditioned before Derrick Morgan, then the label's biggest star.

Early recording career

With Morgan's support, Dekker was signed but did not record until 1963 because Leslie Kong wanted to wait for the perfect song, which "Honour Your Father and Mother" was felt to be.

“Honour Your Father and Mother” was a hit and this was followed by “Sinners Come Home” and “Labour for Learning,” as well as a name change (from Desmond Dacres to Desmond Dekker). His fourth hit, however, made him into one of the island's biggest stars. It was “King of Ska,” a rowdy and jubilant song on which Dekker was backed by The Cherrypies (also known as The Maytals). The song remains well known among ska fans. Dekker then recruited four brothers, Carl, Patrick, Clive and Barry who became his backing band, The Four Aces.

Dekker and the Howards recorded a number of hits including “Parents,” “Get Up Edina,” “This Woman,” and “Mount Zion.” Until 1967 Dekker's songs were polite and conveyed respectable, mainstream messages. In that year, however, he appeared on Derrick Morgan's “Tougher Than Tough,” which helped begin a trend of popular songs glamorizing the violent rude boy culture. Dekker's own songs did not go to the extremes of many other popular tunes though he did introduce lyrics which resonated with the rude boys starting with one of his best-known songs, “007 (Shanty Town)”. The song established Dekker as a rude boy icon and also became an established hero in the United Kingdom's mod scene. “007 (Shanty Town)” was a Top 15 hit in the UK, and he toured that country with a posse of mods following him.

Dekker continued with songs in the same vein such as “Rude Boy Train” and “Rudie Got Soul”, as well as continuing with his previous themes of religion and morality in songs like “It's a Shame”, “Wise Man”, “Hey Grandma”, “Unity”, “It Pays”, “Mother's Young Girl” and “Sabotage.” His “Pretty Africa” is a long-standing favourite among his fans and may be the earliest popular song promoting repatriation. Many of the hits from this era came from his debut album, 007 (Shanty Town).

In 1968 Dekker's “Israelites” was released, appearing on both the U.S. and UK Singles Chart, and eventually topping the latter and peaking in the Top Ten of the former. He was the first Jamaican performer to enter U.S. markets with pure Jamaican music, though he never repeated the feat. Equally, the track became the first reggae song to top the UK chart. That same year saw the release of “Beautiful and Dangerous,” “Writing on the Wall,” “Music Like Dirt”, “Bongo Girl,” and “Shing a Ling.”

1969 saw the release of “It Miek,” which first saw only lukewarm success but was re-recorded and became a hit both in Jamaica and the UK. He also released “Problems” and “Pickney Gal,” both of which were popular in Jamaica but saw only limited success elsewhere.

Mid career (the 1970s)

In the 1970s Dekker spent most of his time touring and moved to the UK, where he continued to record. Among his best known releases of this period was “You Can Get It If You Really Want It,” written by Jimmy Cliff, which Dekker had not wanted to record but was convinced to do so by Leslie Kong. Dekker's recording of the song uses the same instrumental backing track as Cliff's original.

Kong, whose production had been an instrumental part of both Dekker's and Cliff's careers, died in 1971 and both his protegés lost direction for a period before returning to music.

Dekker continued recording, but with only limited success until he began working with the production duo Bruce Anthony in 1974. His first hit with the pair was 1975's “Sing a Little Song” which climbed in to the British Top Ten. Dekker was unable to follow its success, however, and did not chart in the UK for some time (except for the Top Ten re-charting of "Israelites" in 1975). Dekker also found only a limited audience in Jamaica.

At the end of the 1970s Dekker signed with Stiff Records, a punk label linked with the Two-Tone movement, a fusion of punk and ska. He recorded an album called Black & Dekker which featured his previous hits backed by The Rumour, Graham Parker's backing band. His first single was “Israelites,” a Top Ten Belgian hit, and was followed by “Please Don't Bend,” Jimmy Cliff's “Many Rivers to Cross” and “Book of Rules.” His next album was Compass Point, produced by Robert Palmer. Though Compass Point did not sell well, Dekker was still a popular live performer and he toured with The Rumour.

Later life

In the early 1980s, as the 2 Tone movement died out, he saw his fortunes dwindle and he was declared bankrupt in 1984. Only a single live album was released in the late 80s, but a new version of “Israelites” reawakened public interest in 1990, following its use in a Maxell advertisement. He re-recorded some old singles, and worked with The Specials for 1992's King of Kings', which used hits from Dekker's musical heroes, including Derrick Morgan.

He also collaborated on a remix version of his classic “Israelites” with reggae artist Apache Indian.

The Aces - The current line up for Dekker's backing band, who are still performing tribute concerts today, is given below:-

  • Delroy Williams - Backing Vocals / M.C.
  • Gordon Mulrain - Bass guitarist and session musician. Mulrain is also known as the producer, Innerheart, for the British record label, Sativa Records.
  • Aubrey Mulrain - Keyboard player and session musician.
  • Steve Roberts - Guitarist and session musician, also a member of the British band Dubzone.
  • Leroy Green - Drums and session musician.
  • Charles Nelson - Keyboard player and session musician.

This particular line-up also recorded with Dekker, on some of his later studio sessions in the 1990s.


Desmond Dekker died of a heart attack on 25 May 2006, at his home in Thornton Heath in the London Borough of Croydon, England, aged 64. He was preparing to headline a world music festival in Prague. Dekker was divorced and is survived by a son and daughter.


  • He is referenced in the Rancid song "Roots Radicals" in the lyric:

"The radio was playing/Desmond Dekker was singing/On the 43 bus as we climb up the hill".

  • He is mentioned in the Common Rider song "Classics of Love" in the lyric:

"Midnight Marauder spinning on my stereo/Mr. Desmond Dekker has a crown made of gold/The kids are alright a-what a-what I hear".

  • He is also mentioned in the Frank Black song "Parry the Wind High Low" in the lyric:

"I'm getting patterns from a trekker/And it sounds like Desmond Dekker to me".

  • He earned a line in the Stray Bullets song "Wretched Refuse" in the lyric:

"Workin noon to midnight/Walkin through the moonlight/Desmond rockin steady on my headphones".

  • He is referenced by The Beatles in the ska-influenced, Paul McCartney penned song, "Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da" (from The White Album) starting with the lyric:

"Desmond has a barrow in the market-place"

  • The German punk/ska band, Broilers, paid respect to Dekker as well:

"Mit Desmond Dekker in den Ohren/Läßt sie diese Welt den Mittelfinger seh'n" (While listening to Desmond Dekker/he shows the world his middlefinger).

  • He is paid tribute to in "Thou Shalt Always Kill" by Dan Le Sac Vs Scroobius Pip, along with a several other deceased musicians.

"Thou shalt not take the names of Johnny Cash, Joe Strummer, Johnny Hartman, Desmond Dekker, Jim Morrison, Jimi Hendrix or Syd Barret in vain."

  • He is referenced in the movie The Royal Tenenbaums (Wes Anderson); the character Margot Tenenbaum was briefly married to him when she was nineteen.
  • In the 1991 Gulf War, U.S. troops stationed in Saudi Arabia were told not to play certain songs, including Dekker's "Israelites", to avoid inflaming the sensitivities of their hosts.
  • The Reel Big Fish live album and DVD, Our Live Album Is Better Than Your Live Album, released 3 months after Desmond died, is dedicated to him.
  • Ska-core band from Atlanta, GA The Disregardables have a song mourning and celebrating the life and death of Desmond, aptly titled "Desmond Dekker."

Partial Discography


  • This Is Desmond Dekker (1969) - Trojan Records
  • Israelites (1969)
  • You Can Get It If You Really Want (1970) - Trojan
  • Black And Dekker (1980)
  • Compass Point (1981)
  • King of Ska with The Specials (1993) - Trojan Records


  • Israelites / The Best Of Desmond Dekker (1963-1971) - Trojan (1999)
  • This Is Desmond Dekker (Bonus Tracks) - Trojan (2006)